Marine geology group
Oceans and seas embrace more than 360 millions square km areas of the Earth surface (about 71%) and have a key role on living bodies of the Earth. Geological evidences show that first organic materials, which are reserved as fossils in Archean carbonaceous schists and slates have related to hydrosphere and atmosphere interactions.
Oldest carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are 3.7 BA old, which it is thought that they have referred to primitive algal structures. About 1.8-2 billion years ago, development of photosynthesis process and introduction of green plants started a new stage of life evolution. First complex beings were created in the sea. During geological times, always life has had close relation to water.
Exploitation from oceans is not limited to biological processes, geological events have main role in oceans generation and extinction, plate tectonics discusses the cycle of oceanic crust.
Erosion of terrestrial terrains, sediment transportation to sea and sedimentation is continuous geological cycle works during time. Weathering, erosion, sedimentation and digenesis caused numerous kinds of sedimentary rocks and some type of deposits, which are available on sea floors. These sediments could be accreted to continents during subduction process and these cyclic events will act dynamically. 97% of whole hydrosphere is in oceans and seas and, water cycling in hydrosphere is the cause of many geochemical changes during weathering, solids transportation and solutions transfer. Solid sediments, which are transported from land to seas, are various. Among them silicate minerals, such as silica and clays are important because of their contribution with heavy minerals and metals in deposition. Decomposition of these sediments could distribute some elements in water.
So study of sea floor sediments, water, heavy minerals and mineral potentials of coast lines is one of the goals of marine geology which could be utilized indirectly in other branches of science, like deciphering good places for marine animals growth and generation.
The study of metal elements, which are introduced to seawater by natural processes or industrial activities, such as plant wastewaters, is another topic that needs geochemical investigation for estimating the amount of introduced elements and their concentration in seabed and coast line sediments. Uncommon concentration of some elements causes pollution of coast and seabed, which directly threats living beings.
Increasing need to sea and its exploitation as an important economic path for shipping, construction marine structures, such as ports, quays, fishing shelters, oil and gas platforms and passage of energy and power lines, makes a wider approach to marine studies. Industrial development and vast economic investment without basic studies of coastal engineering and coastline infrastructures are controversial. Engineering geology, coastlines and marine tectonic setting, understanding role of coastal erosion and sea level changes are some of fundamental studies. Every change in natural condition affects on marine ecosystem, thus every industrial project should be referred to basic studies.