The Mantoverde Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold District, III Regi?n, Chile: The Role of Regionally Derived, Nonmagmatic Fluids in Chalcopyrite Mineralization

      Located in the Cordillera de la Costa of northern Chile, the mines of the Mantoverde district exploit super-gene oxide ore developed over several Lower Cretaceous, hematite-rich, iron oxide-Cu-Au (IOCG) deposits with an average protore grade of 0.52 percent Cu and 0.11 g/t Au (e.g., Mantoverde proper, Manto Ruso). The geologic setting and genesis of this productive IOCG district are clarified herein through regional petrologic and lithogeochemical study and light stable isotope analysis of paragenetically constrained samples from Mantoverde and its satellite deposits. Together with chalcopyrite-bearing, but subeconomic, bodies of metasomatic magnetite (e.g., Montecristo and Franco) and Cu-barren magnetite-fluorapatite-pyrite bodies (e.g., Ferr

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