CCS as a part of the German Mitigation Strategy - The willpower to act
|Location||International Geological Congress,oslo 2008|
|Holding Date||04 October 2008|
According to the commitments of the Kyoto protocol the EU countries are challenged to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) by 8 % from 1990 levels till the period 2008-2012. For Germany this means a reduction of greenhouse gases by 21% till this period. But the government went still beyond this goal. In Bali 2007 a national climate protection programme was presented with the national target to reduce the anthropogenic CO2 emissions by 40% until 2020 under the precondition that the EU reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 30%. Beside energy efficiency and renewables, CO2-Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an important CO2 mitigation option in Germany and a crucial part of the new Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) started by the German Federal Government in 2007.
To ensure that CCS can be done safely and responsibly an alliance between three Federal Ministries has launched coordinated R&D activities.
Research activities on geological storage of CO2 are carried out in the German national R&D-Programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Already in summer 2005, a portfolio of 9 research projects on CO2-storage was started under the umbrella of this programme. These projects - phasing out in 2008 - incorporate 12 research institutions and 13 companies and represent the first trans-institutional platform for a broad and interdisciplinary research on this topic in Germany.
Due to the successful and promising results of the first funding phase, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research took over the responsibility for all R&D-activities in terms of CO2-Storage. For the next three years 65 Million US $ will be provided for future R&D-activities, carried out in the R&D-Programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN. All activities are public-private-partnerships and pursue a two-step-strategy, which progresses from lab- to field-scale projects.
Basic R&D-activities are focussed on the enhancement of scientific and technological knowledge on a broad scale. They remain predominantly on the laboratory scale. After a public call and an international peer-review 14 joint-projects between academia and industry have been started in spring 2008.
Site specific pilot projects are focussed on a deep saline aquifer in Northern Germany and a depleted gas field in the Altmark area, Sachsen-Anhalt. The Altmark gasfield is the second largest natural gas field in Europe with a potential storage capacity of 500 million metric tons of CO2 and is an ideal area to study enhanced gas recovery and safe storage of CO2.
This paper gives an overview of the recent status concerning the implementation of large-scale CCS demonstration power plants in Germany. Emphasis is on the R&D-activities on geological storage of CO2. In addition, this paper covers the most recent discussions on the legal framework and public outreach activities for the projected CO2 storage sites.