INTRODUCTION OF MEDICAL GEOLOGY
Medical geology is the research about earth effect on human, animals and plants. It has been identified the effect of factors such as climate, humidity, temperature, height and other environmental factors on human from long time ago. This science is an interdisciplinary knowledge that deals with various kinds of science as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, statistics, agriculture, climatology, mineralogy, immunology, epidemiology, pathology and geography medical. Investigation and research in every branch of this science exposes a huge amount of connected and related elements with all. We come to general nature of medical geology objective by discovering of the laws on this relation that is the same objective on identification of geogenetic factors and the effect on living creatures’ health.
As the earth’s crust is made out of various elements, the organs of living creature created from various elements as well; for example over 99% of the organs’ weight of human body form from Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, and Phosphorus. Two main groups of the elements play important rolls in human health based on accomplished researches. The first group is vital and essential elements include Ferro, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Zinc, Copper, Iodine, Selenium, and Fluorine. The second includes elements which cause harmful physiological effects in a small quantity that consists of Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and some Uranium compounds. Therefore biological processes employ these elements for doing essential and especial biochemistry duties in order to continuation of life. Some of these elements play important rolls in normal metabolism and physiological activities on human; for instance Calcium, phosphorus, Fluorine, Magnesium have significant roll in bone and cell membrane structural activities. Some of these elements such as Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Manganese and Molybdenum considered as essential elements of enzyme or act as carrying Ferro for Lignite in metabolism.
Some other groups like Iodine and Chrome participate in main structure of hormone, so these elements enter in creature body system in natural life cycle by soil, water and plant.
Considering the importance of this new science and our country’s necessity, Geological Survey has attempted to establish executive committee on medical geology research on 1383/12/09.
The Most Important Plan Duties on Implementation of Medical Geology Research
This plan includes technical-specialized and research committee as follow:
1- Investigation committee on geochemistry
1-1-detailed investigation and survey on medical soil geochemistry and sediment of regions under study throughout the country (topical-regional-territorial) in order to identification of quantitative and qualitative of various elements in effect process on living creature’s health.
1-2- detailed investigation and survey on polished section and heavy mineral of regions under study to trace environmental elements and determination of their source.
1-3-Design and execute desert activities of taking sample, data processing of laboratorial analysis and presentation of polluted regions with geogenic and anthropogenic source.
1-4-Formulate medical biochemistry reports determine of permissible and ideal contaminative limit and define anomaly rate in environment based on existing medical standards.
1-5-Investigate and attempt to obtain the best existing standards about sediment and soil of various regions with the diverse exploitation (residential, industrial, recreational, agricultural), considering the geological situation on region under study.
1-6- Draw and formulate anomaly maps of medical geochemistry, determine permissible and ideal contaminant limit and commentary of its thematic.
1-7-Use geographical information system CIS by using services such as demonstration, place searching, analysis and combination of data.
1-8-Obtain relation between effective geological processes in distribution of essential and poisonous elements in situation, and its relation with the various kinds of diseases in human and other creatures.
1-9-Combination of data results from effective geological factors in incidence of endemic diseases like water, soil, sediment, plant and natural radioactive materials.
1-10-Seriousness on translating and writing books related to medical geochemistry and other branches related to medical geology science and foundation of scientific and research relations with the countries doing on this field.
2-Investigation Committee on hydro geochemistry
2-1-Detailed investigation on water flowing and underground water used in watering and agriculture by observing hydro geochemistry and hydrology, also determining quantitative and qualitative of various and pollutant elements.
2-2- Design of taking sample, execute desert activities and systematic taking sample of water, determine experimental method, data processing of laboratorial analysis and presentation of pollutant regions with geogenic and anthropogenic source in order to investigate of polluted influence on creature’s health.
2-3- Draw and formulate of anomaly maps of hydro geochemistry, determine of pollutant quantitative and it’s thematic.
2-4- Seriousness on collecting documentary archive from represented scientific reports about water in various regions and seriousness in translating and writing books related to hydro geochemistry and other braches related to medical geology.
3-Investigation committee on Natural radionuclide
3-1-Determin areas with high radioactivity throughout the country for investigating and researching on monitoring environment radio logic.
3-2- Measure people irradiating rate and cooperating in investigation and research on environment radio logic and bilateral effect of ray with the reaction of various environmental elements on creatures.
3-3- Determine quantitative and qualitative of radioactive materials in the environmental, mineral samples and biological materials.
3-4-Complete all experiments in different parts (water, soil, sediment, plant, living creatures and minerals); also determine the capacity of environment radio logic.
3-5- compare radioactivity rate of every radio isotopes in water and sediments, calculate (concentration factor) as well.
3-6-Provide environmental methods required, in order to determine people irradiating rate result from natural radioactive source in different ecosystems.
3-7- Seriousness on collecting documentary archive and scientific reports represented on natural radio logic materials and attempt to translate and write books related.
3-8- Investigate to obtain regional standards by observing and special concentration to international standards for natural radioactive materials.
4- Investigation Committee on Geobotany:
4-1- Detailed investigation on soil and determining threshold boundary of mineral concentration and determine environmental anomaly based on medical environmental standards.
4-2- Comprehensive study on biological diversity of plant species in the regions under study includes determining species and plant subspecies units, determine rare and dominant growth figures, providing keys of identifying photo and variance map.
4-3- Study on plant sociology in the specified regions in order to determine index plant societies in the region and determine index and dominant species.
4-4- Autecology study on resistant plants against specific pollutant in the region to concentrate on pedology characteristics, consists of specific elements concentration such as heavy metal.
4-5- Determine elements concentration, especially heavy metals in different parts of plants; determine its keeper organs and how to use plant in living creatures.
4-6- The influence of environment factors in the polluted areas on plant morphology.
4-7- Determine experiments and standard experimental methods in every stage of working and on every different parts under study.
4-8- -Seriousness on translating and writing related books along with the objective of researches unit of medical geology in different areas.
5-Investigation Committee on Medical:
5-1- Investigate and research on acute and chronic epidemic in defined regions and declaration of related diseases statistics.
5-2- Investigate and research on preparation of different diseases, according to multidimensional data.
5-3- Determine vulnerability rate of population under study in every areas to represent statistics to the international investigative-educational centre.
5-4- Utilize effective methods in order to prevent of probable harms to human and pathogenic to them.
5-5- Investigate and research on veterinary in the regions under study by observing medical geology.
5-6- provide documentary report endemic diseases in each area of country for supplying archive and determine research priorities to compare with reports.
5-7- Seriousness on collecting archive documentary of represented reports about incidence of endemic diseases.
5-8- Translate and write medical text related to epidemiology, environmental poison logy, pathology, geographical medical etc., in relating to the aim of medical geology researches unit.
Organizations and Institutions Using of Medical Geology Researches:
Ministry of Health and its subgroups;
2-Ministry of Industry and Mines and all related organizations;
3-Ministry of Higher Education-Research and Technology;
4-Ministry of Agriculture;
5-Ministry of Power and Electricity and its subgroups such as Water and Sewage Department of all provinces.
6-Environmental Protection Agency;
7-Mediacl Schools and Medical group of the country;
8-Agricultural Schools and Agricultural group;
9-Nuclear Energy Agency of the country;
10-Iran Standard and Industrial Research Organization
Investigate on medical geology in the paper 1:100000 Tehran comprising of several representable reports volumes.
The Future Outlook:
As our country is located on geographical distribution of some diseases like (goiter, anemia and some other kinds of cancer).It is necessary to do multilateral research and investigation in a national scale. Consequently this research committee intends to deal with the thematic and regional research according to represented reports with reference to concluded protocol with Ministry of Health, Nuclear Energy Agency of the country, Tehran Water and Sewage Department and other educational –research center. Then will do vast regional researches in establishment of conceptual relation between geogenic pollutants and related diseases.