Finding potential of mineral materials in west of Sistan

Author engineering company & technology of Itok Iran
Published At 13 December 1996


An area in extent of about 150 km2 was examined in east of Mordar Mountain & in approximate distance of 12 to 30 km from Heidar Abad village (from Nehbandan environs) during several field operations & related studies in purpose of possible of presence of likely potential of mineral material. This region is located on ultrabasic stripe located in Nehbandan- Khash zone & dark peridotite ultrabasic rock mass covers a vast part of the region (from types of harzburgite).


 Abstract An area in extent of about 150 km2 was examined in east of Mordar  Mountain & in approximate distance of 12 to 30 km from Heidar Abad village (from Nehbandan environs) during several field operations & related studies in purpose of possible of presence of likely potential of mineral material. This region is located on ultrabasic stripe located in Nehbandan- Khash zone & dark peridotite ultrabasic rock mass covers a vast part of the region (from types of harzburgite). In west of this ultra basic mass, a set composed of sedimentary, volcanic & metamorphic rocks & also turbidity flisch sediments.  Vigorously altered & serpentized zones have been displaced parallel or correlated on trend of main faults of the region (north- south) in metamorphic sedimentary rocks (phillite type of weak metamorphism & rarely schist). These rocks are in type of dunite in aspect of lithology that are vigorously & deeply under influence of alteration process in type of serpentinization. Following of these zones from fault trends can be representative of likely relation of vigorously alteration to alternatively operations of faults. Potentials of mineral materials in this region are practically n relation to peridotite ultrabasic mass & or altered & serpentinite zones, related to it as only chromite mine of the region (Mordar  Mount. mine) is located in one of northern- southern altered zone. From several chromite lens - bearing outcrop are exploited in this mine. Except to this region & its around, 4 other points have been identified as promising regions for exploration examines in purpose of finding of indices & chromite reservoirs. Also a magnesite index is as a relatively thick horizontal band & a region a relatively thick horizontal band & a region as a relatively much accumulation of veins. Total of peridotite ultrabasic mass is very important considering to its harzburgite composition, in aspect of geology criteria as potential of likely chromite reservoirs in evaluated depth for doing of economical geology studies.  Geographical & climatologic condition Studied area with an extent of about 150 km2 is located in some areas at the end of north west of Sistan- Baluchistan province (in Sistan area) with longitude of 60 05 to 60 00 & latitude of 30 55 to 30 45 . this region has been located in northern border of Sistan Baluchistan province & Khorasan province & Heidar Abad village which has distance about 8 km, from Khorasan province environs (Nehbandan province). The range of heights well known to Mordar Mount. and it is located with a approximate trend of N-S in west of the studied region & in eastern margin of lout desert. The map of 1 shows position of operation area in country frame & proportion to main cities & access ways of the area. The map number 2 is representative of position of the studied region in Sistan area. Sistan & Baluchistan province Sistan & Baluchistan province has been located as second vast province of the country n south west of Iran country & near to Pakistan & Afghanistan countries from east & on Oman sea margin from south. Western area of this province is adjacent to Kerman & Hormozgan Provinces & it is limited to Khorasan province from northern side. Northern part of this province has been formed in Sistan area & Baluchistan area in southern & central parts. Total extent of the province is 181/471 km2 that about 8,000 km2 from this amount is belonged to Sistan area & the rest is lands of Baluchistan area. Considering to population in Sistan & Baluchistan province, it has lowest amount in country level & around of Zabol city which is regarded in center of Sistan Area & it has most population & accumulation of village & town in the province. Around deserts around Zabol & adjacent areas to Hamoon lake his smart position in aspect of agriculture & economical condition in the province. Hirmand River which is from main & fertilized rivers of Afghanistan, fluxes in to Iran land from Sistan area & Hamoon lake. This river is only permanent & considerable flow of surface water in Sistan region & other regions of Sistan area are formed from dry & without water & grass mountains & deserts & relatively dry foot mountains & without vegetation. The range of northern & southern heights separates mountainous western &  foothill parts from eastern vast deserts. These ranges are entered from south of Nehandan & it extends further into southern parts of Baluchistan area. Agriculture & husbandry in Sistan & Baluchistan province has vast extent in province surface & in suitable areas considering to water & vegetation position, like regions in margin of Taftan, the regions around Iranshahr & Jazmurian basin & … are concentrated. In Sistan Area, Sistan & Baluch tribes are resident & hospitality nomads Baluch & warm blood genres of Sistan are busy in disperse & little population villages &  or in named method in job of husbandry & sometimes agriculture (finitely). Amount of raining in this area is very little & are limited to floody & short time showers.   Sistan area has desert & dry climate & difference in temperature is very much during day & night. 120 days winds of Sistan have much impression in this area & also on life method & other activities of the region. Only main communication way in Sistan area is asphalt & degree one road of Zahedan – Birjand- Mashhad that it has been stretched in foot hill of northern- southern high range of mountains.   The people of the area have problem to drinking & agriculture & husbandry water supply especially in mountainous & foothill areas & they provide their consumption water from local little flowers & or present wells in the location. Studied region The area of operation region has been located in east of height of Mordar Mount. is inside of a rectangular area in approximate area about 150 km2 & in a distant about 250 km to Zahedan City. The map number 3 is apart of topography sheet in scale of 1:250,000 of Itamoun Lake (the sheet of NH41-5, series of K 551) that it shows position of studied area is in its west & rather than Heidar Abad Village (north of the map). The map number 4 is apart of topography is scale of 1:50,000 of sheet of west of Boutgu (sheet IV 8051, series K 753) that operation area has been characterized in it. This area is located in south of Heidar Abad village (from environs of Nehbandan province) but it is from environs of Sistan & Baluchistan province from country division aspect. The resident nomads n this area & its vicinity refers to Nosrat Abad part of Zahedan regarding its official problem aspect (based on oral discussion to nomads). Traces of residence & nomad life are seen in main valleys of the region & also a few numbers of nomads have residence inside of this area.   Drinking & consumption water are provided for life & calves from drilled wells inside of channel sediments in valleys & or foot hills. These waters have mainly good quality  also unsuitable condition of hygiene. A few cases of small springs with salt water have been seen in mountainous valleys. Main way of Heidar Abad village is by a walking road in degree 2 that is joined about 40 km from south of Nehbandan to main asphalt road of Zahedan- Birjand. A third level road able for tow asport of field &  track auromobiles) in length of about 25 km to center of area & to location of only mine of chromite, active in the region (mordar kuh hromite mine) has been stretched from Heidar Abad village. This mine is only usable for short time residence inside of studied area of other residential facilities is limited to near locations to tents of baluch homads.     Numerous access ways are present that it joins this area from south to Chah Rahman, Chehel Kureh & Nosrat Abad & to Shondul & eastern mountains from east. These ways have been used by local residents & their communication is feasible only by help of local guides. From area of 150 km2, the region has covered about 100km2 by relatively high mountains & hills & rocky outcrops & the rest of the region (about 50km2) has been covered by alluvial foothills & deserts & small playa & sand dunes. Presence of sands in lout desert has been shown in east of the region on impact as coverage & or presence of sand dunes in most of region points. Western – Eastern winds of the region have presence usually as sand storm & feasibility of each type of exploration activity is impossible in this time. During spring & summer in year of 75 & in field operations, we are confronted only to one case of such phenomena.   In this area, for exploration & mineral activities, more than providing of food needs, consumption water should be provided from outside of the area. In aspect of work force, a few areas of Kargar (a bout 20 people) can be provided from local nomads & Heidar Abad village. Recently a project is doing for providing of power in Heidar Abad village as local & by using of generator & anyway there is no feasibility in current condition for providing of power inside of this area by overall & or province network. General geology The studied area is located in area of geology hop in scale of 1:250,000 of Hamoon lake sheet & geology map scale of 1:100,000 of Siastorgi mountain. It has been represented in maps of number (5) & number (6) a part of above geological maps is accompanied with studied area position. Classified information of geology & other exploration information of this region is access able & geology & exploration activities has been extended in south east of the region by Iranian & foreigner in years before of 1357 to areas in south of this region. Lithologic &  structure of the sis tan area As it is observed in maps of number 5 & number 6 & a main part of litho logic outcrops & units are present in Sistan area in set of igneous & sedimentary rocks, belonged to northern – southern trend well-known to Nehbandan-Khash of main faults of this region, by ignoring of perturbations is northern-southern. The maps in numbers 7, 8 & 9 show position of studied region in structural zone of Nehbandan – Khash zone in regional scale & in a various set of litho logic. The set of colored mélange rocks, ophiolite, flisch, sandstone, limestone & also volcanic units & granite & granodiorite intrusive rocks of complicated litho logic series of sis tan area.         Main sub classifications of tectonic in Iran, related to map number (9). 1-    Neocene to Quaternary lands, passing through unfolded lands & folded marginal region. 2-    Sedimentary basin of intracratonic from Jurassic Paleogene (in northern territory) && deposits in cratonic margin (Mesozoic- Paleogene) in southern parts. 3-    Hercynian & early Cimmerian Granites.   4-    Sedimentary & volcanic rocks from Paleozoic to tertiary (involving ophiolites & deep marine deposits with an age of after upper carboniferous). 5-    Oceanic crust of Caspian Marine Parts under Mesozoic tertiary-Quaternary & remnant of old oceanic crust (Paleozoic) or new slimming of continental crust. 6-    Intermountainous basins of Neocene-Quaternary. 7-    Volcanic zone of tertiary-Quaternary (that it involves local upper cretaceous & it has basically a dacite, andesite & basalt nature. 8-    Granites & diorites in Neocimmerian & alpine phases. 9-    Platformic deposits & a intercratonic basin from Mesozoic (that it involves as local Paleogene after middle Triassic). 10-  Old cores of Precambrian & Paleozoic metamorphic rocks & sedimentary coverage with a plat formic manner. 11-  Geosynclinals basin from Paleozoic inside of cratons. 12-  Paleogene Flisch (that it involves a part of upper cretaceous). 13-  Ophiolite mélange & related volcanic-sedimentary rocks related to upper cretaceous. 14-  Ophiolites, basically peridotites. 15-  Oceanic deposits of Mesozoic. 16-  Platformic deposits & intracratonic basin from Mesozoic in Esfandaqe- Marivan zone (Sanandaj – Sirjan). In west of Sistan area from south of Nehbandan to inside of Baluchistan area of ophiolitic zone & colored mélange which is complex & irregular with Flisch sedimentary units, sandstone, conglomerate & also acidic volcanic to basic outcrops. Ultrabasic rocks of this zone has been formed mainly from peridotites that are mainly harzburgite & or they are found sometimes as local & considering to vigorously serpentized alteration, likely there is also limited zones of dunite. In this zone, considering to presence of volcanic processes & tectonic active systems, numerous outcrops of metamorphic lithologic units of sedimentary & volcanic rocks are observed. Considering intensity & weakness of metamorphism process, different facieses of phillite, schist, amphibolites & also litho logic units have been reported under title of meta sediment & or met volcanic. The image number (1), as panorama, is representative of an ultrabasic series & its western metamorphic facieses is adjacent to Mordar Mount. (depth of image). Main fault in west of Asagi which is stretched from north to south have been formed on eastern boundary of ophiolitic zone & colored mélange & main & overall fault of Nehbandan which is located in eastern margin of lout desert & it has caused western boundary of this zone somehow. In distance between these two main & overall faults, there is a crushed & fault tectonic zone with abundant faults with a general trend of northern- southern & sometimes with other trends inside of it. Presence of these faults can be ore of factors for causing of various metamorphic units. In east of Gharb Asagi Fault, a lithologic structure is different from mentioned zone basically. The series of andesite volcanic units in the north & medium to acidic volcanic in central & southern areas that are stretched somehow parallel to ophilitic zone & they can be recognized as obivious traces of volcanic belt, parallel to phiolitic belt & colored mélange. Main outcrops of these units have caused considerable exposures. Contact area between ophiolitic & volcanic zones with deserts & low foothills, involving of Hamoon lake & Zabol, have been formed a rocky set mainly sedimentary containing of sandstone, marl, limestone with various volcanic rocks. This set which is mainly as mountainous & relatively high & continuous & it has a general trend of northern – southern & western – eastern valleys, not too much, sacrificial raining of catchment area are transported with foothills & eastern alluvial deserts. Eastern part of Sistan area has been formed mainly from low & alluvial lands around Hamoon lake & only in its northern part (adjacent area to Nehandan) & lithologic units have exposure in ultrabasic type & sedimentary formations. The outcrop is observed from basalt, well-known to Kuh Khajeh, limited in Hamoon lake in center of this part.   Metalogeny of sistan area As it was mentioned in former paragraph, in total & from west to east, there are 3 N-S trends can be separated in Sistan Area. Ophiolitic zone & colored mélange have their special condition from metalogenic aspect due to ultrabasic nature of igneous rocks. Metallurgic model of this type has been represented under title of metalogeny in oceanic crust in present reports. Probable of formation & presence of chromite reservoir from layer type & or disperse lenses are from characteristics of these types of rocks. In relation to formation of magnesite ore deposits, a part of ophiolitic zone & ultrabasic zone of Nehebandan – Khash which is located in Sistan area has suitable condition. Consequent activities of faults in this zone have likely suitable condition for mobility of alkaline solutions & it contains CO2 & it results in dissolution & transportation of magnesium & formation of magnesite ore deposit. Existance of abundant magnesium in this series of rocks results in formation of vast & vigorously altered & high magnesium serpentized bands, inside of peridotite masses & also ultrabasic dikes. Progressed alteration process in this condition can be resulted in formation of reservoirs & bands containing of asbestos & talk. N-S trend of volcanic rocks which are located in east of ophiolitic zone have individually special metalogenic condition. Operation of hydrothermal processes in these rocks can be resulted information of metallic sulfuric reservoirs (mainly copper, lead & zine). Examining of condition & situation of this volcanic belt & its comparison to volcanic belt of Sahand - Bazman can be a comprehensive study plan & a start poin