A glance at mines of Hormozgan province
||13 January 2011
Hormozgan province is situated in 1,100km from north of Hormuz strait and Persian golf and it has a free water border about 1,400 km with calculation of Gheshm Island.Hormuz strait which is situated between Iran beaches and Persian gulf Emirates beaches, has approximately 80km in width and it is only pass way of Persian gulf.
Fortunately, our country is one of richest countries of the world from mineral reservoir aspect but unfortunately wrong policies of last regime with emphasis on economy resulted from petroleum exports and single product of our economy results in being our mines as one of sensitive economical frames in less consideration, currently with respect to current position of our country and creation of disturbance during exploration of petroleum, necessity of consideration to establishment and more activity of mines by all of governors due to protrusive war is felt, in case of we use virtual and potential of country with good management, annually considerable currency will be resulted from exportation of these material, other than that with replacement of mineral material into the country, instead of imported material from outside, annually currency providence will be a high digit. For this purpose, regarding presence of numerous mineral potential in Hormozgan province such as chromite and iron mud, manganese, sulfur, talc and ornamental and building rocks and … show a necessity for review on province mines position and its virtual potentials. In next chapter, it is tried that some schematic subjects from total position of mine province (active and semi-active mines and stagnant mines) and also present virtual potentials be mentioned for more study.
Hopefully with more consideration of governors in this subject, some more effective solutions be represented for activation of mines and promotion of industrial-economical department in this province.
Geographical and political and social position of Hormozgan province
Hormozgan province is situated in 1,100km from north of Hormuz strait and Persian golf and it has a free water border about 1,400 km with calculation of Gheshm Island.Hormuz strait which is situated between Iran beaches and Persian gulf Emirates beaches, has approximately 80km in width and it is only pass way of Persian gulf. This strait prevents from entrance of external waves of Indian Ocean into Persian gulf and it prevents from loose of relative calmness of Persian gulf and increase of saltiness and bitterness of its water.
1-3- Province border
This province its limited to Fars and Kerman Provinces from northwards, to Kerman and Sistan-Baluchistan from east wards, to Bushehr to west and to Persian gulf and Omman sea from south and its area is about 66557 km2 and it is between 25˚ and 24’ and 57’N and 52˚ 41’ to 59˚ 15’ E from Greenwich meridian.
1-4- Geographical divisions
This province includes there mountainous, steppe, internal numerous islands of Persian gulf and Hormuz strait (Gheshm- Hormuz- Lavan- Kish- Lark- Hengam- Sari- Faru- Abu Musa- Big and Tonb-e-kuchak) from geographical division aspect. Mountainous division is situated to north of the province and the range which separate that is trail of Zagros range and some small valleys are seen inside of it that some small and shallow rivers flow in low distance.
Steppe part and low lands have been extended as narrow stripes from north west to south of the province and its width is variable from several kilometers to 80km in various points, some parts of steppe lands are alkaline and saline and other part which is susceptible for agriculture is shallow.
Most important steppe in the region which has attracted major rural population and it almost province agriculture and husbandry in its monopoly, are Minab, Bandar-Abbas, vicinity Bandar-Lengeh and Mehran steppe and also province is trail of coastal mountains which is extends forward into the sea and its high points are exited from water and position of these islands are in coastal areas from natural and ecological condition aspect.
Water resources is limited in the province and rivers in this region are limited to several short and shallow rivers and major part of river water in the region are last due to vigorous warmness and fast evaporation and most rivers are dried after passing a short distance.
Raining in this region is often short and temporary but it is like a flood as it is flown in short time and it falls down into sand deserts and or falls into sea. Most of rivers are salt and bitter due to pass through gypsum and salt deserts and saline salt domes. Most important river in this region is Minab which is entered into Persian gulf after passing through Minab. Currently a dam has been constructed on this river which it provides about 15,000 hectare in water lands for agriculture in Minab and drinking water of Bandar-Abbas.
Raining amount in most points of the province is very low and it is about 100 to 150mm in a year. Difference in raining amount is very high in various years and it is a drinking water resource islands in most of coastal points in lagoons.
Based on counting of total population of the province, it is 7600014 people in 150014 families that 305466 people in urban areas, 452724 people in rural areas and 2224 people are non-resident and population counting is small provinces are as follows:
Abu Musa small province
Urban areas with 61 people in 15 families rural areas with 6 people in 2 families.
Bandar Abbas Province
219644 people in urban areas in 44302 families 148155 people in rural areas in 28818 families.
Bandar- Lengeh Province
Urban areas with 24777 people in 6424 families.
Rural areas with 98280 people in 18279 families from Minab Small Province.
Urban areas with 27472 people in 6721 families from Gheshm Province.
13422 people in rural areas, in 7578 families.
1-7- Province Roads
Position of province roads based on last statistics of 1364 is as follows.
2- Province Geology
For more simplifying of geology position of the province survey, we divide province area into three parts of north (North East, North West), east and south east, west and south west.
A) North (North East- North West) of the provinces:
Some various geological structures are seen in the province that major parts of them are stratigraphical units located in fault zone of Sanandaj-Sirjan, formations related to main thrust of Zagros, salt domes related to Hormoz series and scattered bodies from colored mélange and major formations located in fault zone of Sanandaj-Sirjan including a series of high relief from metamorphic and semi-metamorphic llimestones (marbelite and porcelain) pertaining to Precambrian with brown shale and black slates (Mesozoic) and orbitholine-bearing llimestone (Abtain and Cenomanian).
Stratigraphical units related to Zagros thrust are as follows:
- Hormuz series salt domes (Infra Cambrian) which their geology will be discussed separately.
- Bangestan group include and dolomite and dolomitic llimestone (Albian- Cenomanian).
- Pabdeh and Jahrum Fm. Include fossiliferous llimestone, dolomite and shale (Eocene).
- Asmari Fm. Includes llimestone (Oligomiocene).
- Gachsaran Fm. Includes gypsum and anhydrite, shale and marl (Miocene).
- Miocene Fm. Includes llimestone and shale (Miocene)
- Aghajari Fm. Includes shale and sandstone (Miocene)
- Bakhtiari Fm. Includes conglomerate and sandstone (Pliocene).
Quaternary sediments which include gravel and sand mines in this area.
From tectonical aspect, present units in Sanandaj- Sirjan zone are vigorously tectonized and crushed and other units have been less tolerated tectonic and mineralization in this area has been occurred mainly in Sanandaj-Sirjan fault zone (marbelite-procelain) and Fars Group formations (gypsum and llimestone) and in salt domes (salt-hematite-iron mud- sulfur blue assist).
Colored mélange unit includes Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and ultramafic bodies (dunite, peridotite and …) and globutrancana- bearing llimestones (upper (Cretaceous) and red shales are from other sedimentary rocks.
B) East and south east of the province
Some tectonical units in Iran change their trend abruptly in east and south east of the province, for example, Zagros tectonical unit around same region changes its trend from NW-SE to N-S.
Moreover colored mélange unit from Sanandaj – Sirjan unit follows same trend change (mainly metamorphic rocks and Paleozoic ophiolites).
East of the province is a fault zone and is active from tectonical aspect that activity of these faults has main role in formation and creation of sedimentary- metamorphic basins and magmatic activities, formation of ophiolites and regression and transgression of seas and formation of colored mélanges that follow units have been characterized in this area of the province.
1. Metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolites, Devonian green schist).
2. Sorkh Band Ultramafic rocks: includes donate-pyroxenite, harzburgite- websterite and verlite and a little amount of gabbro that are located due to tectonical movements around colored mélange (equivalent to Ordovician) and chromite ore deposit of Faryab are accompanied with this unit.
3. Gloucophane-schist: this set has been formed from deformed pillowlava, radiolarites and thin layer silica sediments and metamorphic pelagic llimestones which have been formed in lower cretaceous and upper Jurassic.
4. Colored mélange includes:
A) All of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and ultramafic rocks related to it.
B) Ultramafic bodies of dunite-peridotite which have been mainly serpentized.
C) A sequence of pillowlava-radiolarite- globotruncana (upper cretaceous) in red shales.
D) A sequence of sandstones- green greywackes- red shales- little llimestone and pillowlava. It is necessary to mention that most susceptibility of mineralization is concentrated in this unit (colored mélange).
5. Macron flisch zone: they have been formed from Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene flisches and they are limited to Zandan fault zone to west and to Pakistan borders to east. Fault zone of Pishgeram in Bashagerd region separates Makran flisches from metamorphic and sedimentary ophiolitic complex to south of Jazmurian.
6. Bajegan complex: includes Paleozoic metamorphic rocks which include mainly mica-schist- actinolite schist, chlorite schist, marble and crystalline llimestones.
7. In north of Bashagerd fault and Minab map, some various sedimentary igneous sets have outcrop which are belonged to Durkan complex, Dare-Anar, Ganj complex from SW towards NW, respectively, and they are totally belonged to a time period from Jurassic to Paleocene and lower Eocene.
C) Geological structures in this area are totally as present formations in Zagros main thrust and reference sections of most Zagros stratigraphical units are observed in this area. In addition to, island geology are also similar to coastal formation in the province. Also all of small islands are salt domes such as Hormuz, Larak, Abu Musa is lands and Tonb-e-Bozorg and Tonb-e-kuchak in through island that iron mud, iron-stone and sulfur have been occurred in these domes.
Major stratigraphic units of Zagros are in this area (southwest and west) are as follows from old to new:
- Salt domes related to Hormuz series (infra cambrian)
- Khami group include llimestone and shale (Jurassic- Lower cretaceous)
- Bangestan group which forms mainly core of anticlines and it includes llimestone, dolomite and little amount of dolomitic llimestones (Albian- cenomanian).
- Pabdeh and Jahrum Fm. Which include most major formations in the region and it includes llimestone and dolomite and shale (Eocene).
- Asmari Fm. Includes fossiliferous llimestone (Oligocene).
- Gachsaran Fm. Includes Gypsum and anhydrite and shale and marl and all of gypsum mines are related to this formation.
- Aghajari Fm. Includes shale and sandstone (Miocene).
- Bakhtiari Fm. Includes conglomerate and sandstone (Pliocene).
- Quaternary sediments which includes gravel and sand mines in this area.
Impression of tectonical factors in this area is very little and it follows general trend of Zagros thrust. Regarding there are 50 salt domes in Hormozgan province and most of mineralizations have been done in this dome and also it has considerable impact on water resources in the province so some short descriptions have been brought about geology of these domes.
Geology of salt domes; these domes are totally related to Hormuz series and it has perforated Zagros folds without any characterized direction and it is uplifted. Presence of cavabrian trilobites in surrounding llimestones of Hormuz salt domes proves that age of these salts is older than Cambrian and we can attribute that to Infracambrian and orogenic movements of asynthetic phase as a factor for creation of big sedimentary basin of salt so that it describes mechanism of formation of salt domes as follows:
- Plastic injection of halite-bearing rock in upper sedimentary rocks and around of saline sediments due to various factors results in creation of dome and these factors are effective in salt movements as follows:
Specific weight of evaporate beds which have been buried in depths and they are less than their upper layers and this difference results in creating of isostasy imbalances so it has ridden evaporate formations upward.
Tectonical forces with horizontal and vertical pressures in layers around salt
Upper sediments of salt domes are cap rock which have sometimes considerable amount of sulfur mateRials.
Totally salt domes are as a mixed set from gypsum and salt and black llimestone and sheeted red sandstone and diverse shales and igneous rocks are in type of basalt, rhyolite and trachyte with hematite, pyrite and sulfur crystals.
3- Active (virtual) mines and mineral potentials of the province:
In this part, we introduce active mines of the province and also some mines which have identification notebook and it is not established yet and present mineral porential which have been identified and also mines with old exploitation history and are inactive currently, we will pay to them separately from geographical position.
3-1- Ore deposit definition
From geochemical definition, ore deposit is aggregation of one or several chemical elements in earth crust abnormally and anomaly factor is minimum exploitation from a mine from economical aspect that it depends on economical, spatial and temporal and it is different in various mateRials, various minerals and various times and places and it depends on much and divisive factors that most important factors are economical, technological and related factors to them for example, a gold mine with several ppm grade (gram per tone) may be economical, so far evaluation of economical mines, all of factors should be regarded, so after discovering of a mineral material in a region, we should pay to study of its effective economical factors in it (reservoir- grade- far or near to consumption location- extraction amount- road- final price of extraction and …) and in case of positive economical of these factors, we should proceed to extract and establishment of that.
Regarding mentioned topics, presence of a mineral potential should not be regarded as a mine presence potential.
3-2- Mines and North mineral potentials (NE- NW) of the province:
3-2-1- Cashe- Geno mine
This mine is situated in 33km from north Bandar Abbas, reservoir of this mine is million tones and minimum annual extraction is determined 50,000 m3. This mine has been known based on article of 18,32 in datre of 4/9/63 in great council of small mines and some aggregations have been done with exploitation of regional company of Hormozgan mines and its exploitation plan is prepared by this company.
Mineral material of this mine is used as building rock (Malun- Makarem), also it was used before for construction of Shahid Bahonar port wave break and rail way of Bafgh- Bandar Abbas.
Current position of the mine:
The mine is abandon currently:
3-2-2- Geno mineral deposit
This mine is situated in 46km from NW of Bandar Abbas. Mineral material reservoir is 2,250,000 tonnes and minimum extraction amount is 14,000 tonnes. This mine is based on article in meeting 3/67 in date of 18/1/64 in small great council and exploitation certificate has been issued in number of 7486 in date of 9/3/66 for 12 years in name of Hormozgan regional company of mines.
Mineral material in this mine is used after pour in gypsum baking furnaces for whiting and preparation of staff for ceiling.
3-2-3- Sarzeh Salt mine
This mine is situated in 48km from north Bandar Abbas in Sirjan axis and mineral material reservoir is million tones and minimum annual extraction has been determined 2,000 tonnes and its mineral material is salt dome.
This mineral material is used for industrial usages and in case of washing for edible salt and amount of Nacl in this salt is more than 95%.
(Current situation of the mine):
Identification note book has been provided for this mine and it has been submitted for mines great council and regional company of Hormozgan mines and private companies of total mines are requesting of exploitation from this mine and plan of mine exploitation is prepared by total private company and it has been submitted in mine great council. Mine is inactive currently.
3-2-4- Sarzeh llimestone mine
This mine is situated in 62km from NW of Bandar Abbas and in 20km from Bandar Abbas:
- Sirjan axis. Amount of extractable reservoir in the mine in determined area is about 3,240,000 tonnes and minimum annual extraction has been determined 30,000 tonnes.
Current situation of the mine:
Mine identification notebook is prepared in Bahman, 1365 and it has been submitted for representation in great council. Mine is inactive currently.
Mineral material is used for preparation of building llimestone (baked llimestone) and also as building rock (Malun-Makaramo) and amount of CaO is about 54% and its llimestone type is lomashell (fossiliferous).
3-2-5- Haji Abad llimestone mine: